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The Complete Irregular Verbs List In English

There is no exact number of irregular verbs in the English language, as this can vary depending on the source and the criteria used to define irregularity. However, it is generally estimated that there are around 200-250 irregular verbs in English.

These verbs do not follow the standard pattern of adding “-ed” to form their past simple and past participle forms.

Instead, they undergo internal changes in spelling, such as “sing” becoming “sang” in the past simple and “sung” in the past participle. Keep in mind that language is constantly evolving, so this number might not be fixed over time.

While this list is large we have omitted some of the very rare verbs just to keep the length of the page manageable. However you will find the vast majority of English irregular verbs here in these tables.

What is included in the irregular verb tables?

We have included the following forms of these irregular verbs here in the tables below to give you some ideas.

  1. Base Form: This is the infinitive form of the verb without the “to” (e.g., “be,” “begin,” “break”).
  2. Past Simple: The past tense form of the verb (e.g., “was/were,” “began,” “broke”).
  3. Past Participle: The form used with “have” to indicate a completed action (e.g., “been,” “begun,” “broken”).
  4. Present Participle: The form ending in “-ing,” used to indicate continuous or progressive actions (e.g., “being,” “beginning,” “breaking”).
  5. Third Person Singular: The form used with third person singular subjects in the present tense (e.g., “is,” “begins,” “breaks”).
  6. Meaning: A brief definition or explanation of the verb’s meaning(s) (e.g., “to exist,” “to start,” “to cause something to separate into pieces”).

How to Navigate the Irregular Verb Tables.

We have also made it easier to navigate as the page is quite long, so if you have an irregular verb you want to check out then you can click on the letters below to jump to that section.

A – CD – FG – LM – RS – TU – Z

English Irregular Verbs – A- C

Base FormPast SimplePast ParticiplePresent ParticipleThird Person SingularMeaning
alightalit/alightedalit/alightedalightingalightsto descend, to come to rest
arisearosearisenarisingarisesto emerge, come up
awakeawoke/awakedawoken/awakedawakingawakesto wake up, become aware
bewas/werebeenbeingisto exist, to be
bearboreborne/bornbearingbearsto carry, to endure, to give birth
beatbeatbeaten/beatbeatingbeatsto strike, to defeat
becomebecamebecomebecomingbecomesto begin to be, to develop into
befallbefellbefallenbefallingbefallsto happen, to occur
begetbegotbegottenbegettingbegetsto produce, to cause
beginbeganbegunbeginningbeginsto start, to initiate
bendbentbentbendingbendsto curve, to change direction
bereavebereaved/bereftbereaved/bereftbereavingbereavesto deprive, to take away
beseechbesoughtbesoughtbeseechingbeseechesto implore, to beg earnestly
betbet/bettedbet/bettedbettingbetsto risk money on an outcome
betakebetookbetakenbetakingbetakesto go to, to resort to
bethinkbethoughtbethoughtbethinkingbethinksto consider, to reflect upon
bidbid/badebid/biddenbiddingbidsto offer, to command
bindboundboundbindingbindsto tie, to fasten
bitebitbittenbitingbitesto cut with teeth
bleedbledbledbleedingbleedsto lose blood
blowblewblownblowingblowsto produce air, to move with air
breakbrokebrokenbreakingbreaksto separate into pieces
breedbredbredbreedingbreedsto reproduce, to raise
bringbroughtbroughtbringingbringsto carry, to cause to come
buildbuiltbuiltbuildingbuildsto construct
burnburned/burntburned/burntburningburnsto be on fire, to destroy with fire
burstburstburstburstingburststo break open suddenly
buyboughtboughtbuyingbuysto acquire by paying for
castcastcastcastingcaststo throw, to project
catchcaughtcaughtcatchingcatchesto seize, to grasp
choosechosechosenchoosingchoosesto select, to decide on
cleaveclove/cleftcloven/cleftcleavingcleavesto split, to adhere
clingclungclungclingingclingsto hold tightly, to stick to
clotheclothed/cladclothed/cladclothingclothesto dress, to provide with clothes
comecamecomecomingcomesto move toward, to arrive
costcostcostcostingcoststo have a price, to require effort
cowritecowrotecowrittencowritingcowritesto write collaboratively
creepcreptcreptcreepingcreepsto move slowly and quietly
cutcut cutcuttingcutto slice

English Irregular Verbs from D-F:

Base FormPast SimplePast ParticiplePresent ParticipleThird Person SingularMeaning
dealdealtdealtdealingdealsto distribute, to trade
digdugdugdiggingdigsto break up and remove earth
divedove/diveddiveddivingdivesto plunge into water, to descend
dodiddonedoingdoesto perform, to execute
drawdrewdrawndrawingdrawsto produce a picture, to pull
dreamdreamed/dreamtdreamed/dreamtdreamingdreamsto experience while sleeping
drinkdrankdrunkdrinkingdrinksto consume liquid
drivedrovedrivendrivingdrivesto operate a vehicle, to push
dwelldwelt/dwelleddwelt/dwelleddwellingdwellsto live, to reside
eatateeateneatingeatsto consume food
fallfellfallenfallingfallsto descend through air, to drop
feedfedfedfeedingfeedsto give food to
feelfeltfeltfeelingfeelsto experience a sensation
fightfoughtfoughtfightingfightsto struggle, to engage in combat
findfoundfoundfindingfindsto locate, to discover
fitfit/fittedfit/fittedfittingfitsto be the correct size or shape
fleefledfledfleeingfleesto run away, to escape
flingflungflungflingingflingsto throw with force
flyflewflownflyingfliesto move through the air
forbidforbade/forbadforbiddenforbiddingforbidsto disallow, to prohibit
forgetforgotforgottenforgettingforgetsto fail to remember
forgiveforgaveforgivenforgivingforgivesto grant pardon, to excuse
forswearforsworeforswornforswearingforswearsto renounce, to deny under oath
freezefrozefrozenfreezingfreezesto become solid from cold
frostbitefrostbitfrostbittenfrostbitingfrostbitesto damage by freezing

English Irregular Verbs from G-L:

Base FormPast SimplePast ParticiplePresent ParticipleThird Person SingularMeaning
gainsaygainsaidgainsaidgainsayinggainsaysto contradict, to deny
getgotgotten/gotgettinggetsto obtain, to receive
givegavegivengivinggivesto present, to provide
gowentgonegoinggoesto move, to travel
grindgroundgroundgrindinggrindsto reduce to powder or small pieces
growgrewgrowngrowinggrowsto increase in size, to develop
hanghung/hangedhung/hangedhanginghangsto suspend, to attach
havehadhadhavinghasto possess, to own
hearheardheardhearinghearsto perceive sound
hidehidhiddenhidinghidesto conceal, to keep out of sight
hithithithittinghitsto strike, to come into contact
holdheldheldholdingholdsto grasp, to contain
hurthurthurthurtinghurtsto cause pain or injury
inlayinlaidinlaidinlayinginlaysto insert, to decorate
keepkeptkeptkeepingkeepsto retain, to maintain
kneelknelt/kneeledknelt/kneeledkneelingkneelsto bend at the knee
knowknewknownknowingknowsto be aware, to understand
laylaidlaidlayinglaysto put, to place
leadledledleadingleadsto guide, to be in charge
leanleaned/leantleaned/leantleaningleansto incline, to rest on
leapleaped/leaptleaped/leaptleapingleapsto jump, to bound
learnlearned/learntlearned/learntlearninglearnsto acquire knowledge or skill
leaveleftleftleavingleavesto depart, to allow to remain
lendlentlentlendinglendsto grant temporary use
letletletlettingletsto allow, to permit
lielaylainlyingliesto recline, to rest
lightlit/lightedlit/lightedlightinglightsto illuminate, to start a fire
loselostlostlosinglosesto misplace, to be deprived of

English Irregular Verbs from M-R:

Base FormPast SimplePast ParticiplePresent ParticipleThird Person SingularMeaning
makemademademakingmakesto create, to produce
meanmeantmeantmeaningmeansto signify, to intend
meetmetmetmeetingmeetsto encounter, to come together
misleadmisledmisledmisleadingmisleadsto deceive, to guide wrongly
outbidoutbidoutbidoutbiddingoutbidsto offer a higher price than others
outdooutdidoutdoneoutdoingoutdoesto surpass, to do better than
outgrowoutgrewoutgrownoutgrowingoutgrowsto grow beyond, to surpass
outrunoutranoutrunoutrunningoutrunsto run faster than, to surpass
outshineoutshoneoutshoneoutshiningoutshinesto surpass in shining or brightness
outwitoutwittedoutwittedoutwittingoutwitsto outsmart, to get the better of
overbearoverboreoverborneoverbearingoverbearsto dominate, to overcome
overcomeovercameovercomeovercomingovercomesto defeat, to master
overdooverdidoverdoneoverdoingoverdoesto do too much, to exaggerate
overeatoverateovereatenovereatingovereatsto eat too much
overhangoverhungoverhungoverhangingoverhangsto project over, to loom
overhearoverheardoverheardoverhearingoverhearsto hear without intending to
overrideoverrodeoverriddenoverridingoverridesto overrule, to prevail
overseeoversawoverseenoverseeingoverseesto supervise, to manage
oversleepoversleptoversleptoversleepingoversleepsto sleep longer than intended
overtakeovertookovertakenovertakingovertakesto pass, to catch up with
overthrowoverthrewoverthrownoverthrowingoverthrowsto remove from power, to topple
partakepartookpartakenpartakingpartakesto participate, to share
paypaidpaidpayingpaysto give money for goods or services
pleadpled/pleadedpled/pleadedpleadingpleadsto make an earnest request
presetpresetpresetpresettingpresetsto set in advance
proofreadproofreadproofreadproofreadingproofreadsto check for errors
putputputputtingputsto place, to position
quitquit/quittedquit/quittedquittingquitsto leave, to stop
readreadreadreadingreadsto look at and comprehend text
rebuildrebuiltrebuiltrebuildingrebuildsto build again, to restore
recastrecastrecastrecastingrecaststo change, to reassign
redoredidredoneredoingredoesto do again, to revise
rendrentrentrendingrendsto tear, to split
repayrepaidrepaidrepayingrepaysto pay back, to recompense
rerunreranrerunrerunningrerunsto run again, to repeat
rideroderiddenridingridesto be carried on, to travel on
ringrangrungringingringsto produce a sound, to encircle
riseroserisenrisingrisesto move upward, to increase
runranrunrunningrunsto move quickly, to operate

English Irregular Verbs from S-T:

Base FormPast SimplePast ParticiplePresent ParticipleThird Person SingularMeaning
sawsawedsawed/sawnsawingsawsto cut with a saw
saysaidsaidsayingsaysto speak, to express
seesawseenseeingseesto perceive, to understand
seeksoughtsoughtseekingseeksto search for, to try to find
sellsoldsoldsellingsellsto exchange for money
sendsentsentsendingsendsto cause to go, to dispatch
setsetsetsettingsetsto put in position, to adjust
sewsewedsewn/sewedsewingsewsto join with stitches
shakeshookshakenshakingshakesto move with short, quick motions
shearshearedsheared/shornshearingshearsto cut, to remove by cutting
shedshedshedsheddingshedsto cast off, to lose
shineshoneshoneshiningshinesto emit light, to be bright
shoeshodshodshoeingshoesto furnish with shoes
shootshotshotshootingshootsto discharge a projectile
showshowedshown/showedshowingshowsto display, to exhibit
shrinkshrank/shrunkshrunkshrinkingshrinksto become smaller
shutshutshutshuttingshutsto close, to block
singsangsungsingingsingsto produce musical sounds
sinksanksunksinkingsinksto descend, to fall
sitsatsatsittingsitsto be in a resting position
slayslew/slayedslain/slayedslayingslaysto kill, to destroy
sleepsleptsleptsleepingsleepsto be in a state of rest
slideslidslidslidingslidesto move smoothly along a surface
slingslungslungslingingslingsto throw, to hurl
slinkslunkslunkslinkingslinksto move smoothly and quietly
slitslitslitslittingslitsto make a long, narrow cut
smellsmelled/smeltsmelled/smeltsmellingsmellsto perceive odor
smitesmotesmitten/smitedsmitingsmitesto strike, to inflict a heavy blow
sneaksnuck/sneakedsnuck/sneakedsneakingsneaksto move quietly and stealthily
sowsowedsown/sowedsowingsowsto scatter seeds
speakspokespokenspeakingspeaksto talk, to converse
speedsped/speededsped/speededspeedingspeedsto move quickly
spellspelled/speltspelled/speltspellingspellsto form words with letters
spendspentspentspendingspendsto use money, to pass time
spillspilled/spiltspilled/spiltspillingspillsto cause liquid to flow out
spinspunspunspinningspinsto rotate, to whirl
spitspat/spitspat/spitspittingspitsto eject saliva from the mouth

Base FormPast SimplePast ParticiplePresent ParticipleThird Person SingularMeaning
splitsplitsplitsplittingsplitsto divide, to separate
spoilspoiled/spoiltspoiled/spoiltspoilingspoilsto ruin, to become bad
spreadspreadspreadspreadingspreadsto extend, to distribute
springsprang/sprungsprungspringingspringsto jump, to arise
standstoodstoodstandingstandsto be upright, to remain
stealstolestolenstealingstealsto take without permission
stickstuckstuckstickingsticksto attach, to adhere
stingstungstungstingingstingsto prick, to cause pain
stinkstank/stunkstunkstinkingstinksto smell bad
stridestrodestriddenstridingstridesto walk with long steps
strikestruckstruck/strickenstrikingstrikesto hit, to collide with
stringstrungstrungstringingstringsto thread, to stretch
strivestrovestrivenstrivingstrivesto make an effort, to try hard
swearsworeswornswearingswearsto promise, to use offensive language
sweepsweptsweptsweepingsweepsto clean, to move swiftly
swellswelledswollen/swelledswellingswellsto increase in size, to expand
swimswamswumswimmingswimsto move through water
swingswungswungswingingswingsto move back and forth
taketooktakentakingtakesto grasp, to receive
teachtaughttaughtteachingteachesto instruct, to impart knowledge
teartoretorntearingtearsto pull apart, to rip
telltoldtoldtellingtellsto communicate, to inform
thinkthoughtthoughtthinkingthinksto consider, to ponder
throwthrewthrownthrowingthrowsto propel, to send through the air
thrustthrustthrustthrustingthruststo push, to shove
treadtrodtrodden/trodtreadingtreadsto walk, to step

English Irregular Verbs from U – Z

Base FormPast SimplePast ParticiplePresent ParticipleThird Person SingularMeaning
undergounderwentundergoneundergoingundergoesto experience, to endure
understandunderstoodunderstoodunderstandingunderstandsto comprehend, to grasp
undertakeundertookundertakenundertakingundertakesto commit to, to embark on
undoundidundoneundoingundoesto reverse, to unfasten
unfoldunfoldedunfoldedunfoldingunfoldsto open, to reveal
unlearnunlearned/unlearntunlearned/unlearntunlearningunlearnsto forget or lose knowledge or skills
unwindunwoundunwoundunwindingunwindsto relax, to uncoil
upholdupheldupheldupholdingupholdsto support, to maintain
upsetupsetupsetupsettingupsetsto disturb, to overturn
useusedusedusingusesto employ, to utilize
wakewokewokenwakingwakesto cease sleeping, to rouse
wearworewornwearingwearsto have on one’s body, to erode
weavewovewovenweavingweavesto form by interlacing
weepweptweptweepingweepsto cry, to shed tears
wetwet/wettedwet/wettedwettingwetsto make or become moist
winwonwonwinningwinsto achieve victory, to succeed
windwoundwoundwindingwindsto coil, to twist
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawnwithdrawingwithdrawsto remove, to retreat
withstandwithstoodwithstoodwithstandingwithstandsto resist, to endure
wringwrungwrungwringingwringsto twist, to extract by twisting
writewrotewrittenwritingwritesto form letters or symbols

We also have articles and worksheets which we will link examples of below, and if you need more you can try the search box.


At this point, we have covered most of the common and many less common irregular verbs in the English language. As we mentioned at the top there are others some of which are rare some of which are slang, and some of which are old English.

We have left these out to keep the tables above a reasonable length, and even then its quite a page!

however we hope these are useful and don’t forget you can navigate to each verbs page as we write and post them up on the site. There are a lot! so bear with us!

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I have been a teacher of English for over 15 years, in that time i made hundreds and thousands of resources and learnt so much i think its worth sharing. Hopefully to help teachers and parents around the world.

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